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Artech House UK
5G and Satellite RF and Optical Integration

5G and Satellite RF and Optical Integration

By (author): Geoff Varrall
Copyright: 2022
Pages: 400
ISBN: 9781630819569

Print Book £119.00 Qty:

This unique book brings together RF Engineering and Optical Integration in terrestrial fixed and mobile networks, space networks and sub orbital communication systems (Low Altitude Platforms and High-Altitude Platforms). It is written specifically to help optical engineers to understand RF engineering and RF engineers needing to understand the optical technologies used in fixed and mobile networks, including local and long-distance fiber, free space terrestrial optical point to links, earth to space and space to earth links and inter satellite and inter-constellation cross connect. The book shows you how to mix and match RF and optical efficiently and explains how to repurpose terrestrial RF and terrestrial optical for space deployment. You’ll learn how to decide whether to use an RF or optical link; how to calculate an RF and optical link budget; how to interface an optical signal to an RF bearer – and vice versa; how to multiplex RF and optical signals in guided and unguided media; and much more. This is a must-have book for practicing RF engineers, optical engineers, and planners of satcom and terrestrial networks, supply chain partners to 5G/satellite RF/optical integrations needing understanding of problems and solutions. It is also accessible to readers with a market, financial and/or regulatory interest. The book is a follow on to 5G Spectrum and Standards (Artech House_ Varrall_2016) and 5G and Satellite Spectrum, Standards and Scale (Artech House_ Varrall_2018).

Chapter 1 5G Radio Spectrum Including RF C Band- link budgets and active and passive device efficiency
1.1 New Radio - the FR 1 Bands
1.2 FR1 C Band
1.3 The FR 2 Bands
1.4 Smart Phone RF Front Ends
1.5 5G Standards including Non Terrestrial Networks (NTN)
1.6 What bands and technologies are supported in present Smart Phones?
1.7 Can I make a phone call on my 5G satellite phone?
1.8 Defining the Space RAN (S-RAN) and the role of the Global Wireless Optical Network (G-WON)
1.9 Summary


Chapter 2 Optical C Band link budgets and active and passive device efficiency
2.1 The Best Way to Move Bits About?
2.2 Guided versus Unguided Media
2.3 Impact of Device Efficiency on Guided and Unguided Media
2.4 Optical Modulation and Optical Band Options for terrestrial fiber and free space optical transmission
2.5 Device Performance
2.6 Modulation in short, medium and long haul terrestrial fiber
2.7 The role of the DSP in RF and optical terrestrial and space networks and legacy copper
2.8 The Copper to Fiber Transition and the Passive Optical Network (PON)
2.9 Passive Optical Networks and the 5G RAN
2.10 Active Optical Networks
2.11 The 5G C-RAN, D-RAN, S-RAN, Front Haul, Mid Haul, Back Haul, Long Haul Links
2.12 Long Haul to Front Haul
2.13 Impact of Hybrid ARQ on Front Haul Latency
2.14 CPRI and eCPRI Standards
2.15 Point to Point Wireless V Band, E Band, W Band, D Band
2.16 5G Networks in 2023 – Optical and RF Backhaul Options
2.17 E Band Point to Point Radios
2.18 Copper versus Fiber to the Desk and Fiber to the Sofa (5G TV)
2.19 Plastic Optical Fiber (POF)
2.20 Power over Guided and Unguided Media
2.20.1 Power over Copper and Cable and Fiber
2.20.2 Power over Free Space- RF and Optical Systems
2.21 Sub Sea Optical C Band
2.22 Power over Sub Sea Cable
2.23 Summary


Chapter 3 RF over Fiber
3.1 Is the answer Analog?
3.2 Direct and Indirect Digital and Analog Modulation
3.3 The role of analog optical transport in 5G enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), URLLC Repeater applications and In Band Access Backhaul (IAB)
3.4 The role of Analog Optical Transport (AOT) in Network Vendor Inter-Operability Testing (NV-IOT)
3.5 Enabling Technologies for Analog Optical Fiber Transport
3.6 In Building Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS)
3.7 Long distance RF Analog Transport over Analog Fiber
3.8 RF over Fiber for SATCOM
3.9 RF Overlay and Legacy RF over Glass (RFoG) Systems
3.10 Analog over analog versus digital analog
3.11 The Digital Dividend
3.12 Two Hundred Years of Telecom
3.13 Summary


Chapter 4 Space RF Link Budgets
4.1 Intersatellite RF Links (ISL) - Introduction
4.2 RF Applications in Space - Past, Present and Future and their impact on link design
4.3 Space Weather as a component of an ISL and space to earth and earth to space link budget
4.4 The Maths and Mechanics of ISL (In standard SI units)
4.5 Power and Antenna Gain in Space (EIRP)
4.6 Filtering in Space
4.7 Phase Noise in Space
4.8 Analog to Digital (A/D) and Digital to Analog (D/A) Conversion (DAC) in Space
4.9 ISL in Existing Space Deployments
4.10 Inter Satellite Links – differences between Constellation ISL and Formation ISL
4.11 Link Budgets, Lawyers and WRC23
4.12 Summary – RF and Optical in Space


Chapter 5 Optical Inter Satellite Links (OISL)
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Homodyne, Heterodyne and Intradyne Receivers
5.3 Optical Conformance Testing- Noise budgets, Signal to Noise and Optical Signal to Noise Ratio
5.4 Optical Heterodyne Noise and Gain Budgets
5.5 Pointing Loss and Vibration Loss
5.6 Vibration Loss, Jitter Loss, Pointing Loss and Tracking Loss Noise Budgets
5.7 Iridium as an example of how a LEO satellite moves around in space, what that does to the (RF) link budget and what this means for OISL
5.8 Doppler Wavelength Shift and WDM OISL
5.9 Other sources of noise and distortion and unwanted signal energy
5.10 Diffraction Limits and the Strehl Ratio as a measure of optical system quality
5.11 Laser Beam Quality and M2 (M Squared) Measurement
5.12 Circular and Elliptical Beams Laser Choice - Impact on Flux Density - Vertical Cavity Side Emitting Laser (VCSEL) as an example
5.13 Low Noise and Power Amplifiers in OISL
5.14 Filtering
5.15 Filtering out Solar Noise
5.16 Digital Filtering
5.17 Phased Array Optics
5.18 5G OISL and the OISL vendor supply chain
5.19 Summary


Chapter 6 Deep Space and Near Space
6.1 Heading for the Oort Clouds
6.2 5G Spectrum and Standards Summary
6.3 Deep Space from the Ground (RF)
6.4. Deep Space from the Ground - Optical
6.5 Deep Space from Deep Space- the JWST
6.6 Deep Space and Near Space Network Integration
6.7 Deep Space from the Moon and CISLunar Space
6.8 X Rays from Deep Space
6.9 The Near Space Network
6.10 The A to Z of the Near Space Network (NSN)
6.11 Near Space from a Cold Place
6.12 Near Space Optical Network
6.13 Deep Space Data Rates, Latency and CCSDS Standards
6.14 Space Optical and Radio Standards
6.16 Deep Space Science
6.17 Summary


Chapter 7 Ground Station and Earth Station Hardware and Software
7.1 The Story So Far
7.2 The Hyper Linked Hyper Data Center
7.3 Hyper Data Centers and Points of Presence
7.3 Gateways, Ground Stations, Earth Stations and Teleports
7.4 Mr Brunel, Big Ships, Landing Stations and Long Distance Subsea Cables
7.3 Sub Sea to Terrestrial Connectivity - Scale Issues and Politics - Africa as an example
7.4 Fiji to Tonga – The Cost of Cable Failure
7.5 Sub Sea Cable Economics - Optical C Band under the Sea
7.6 From Station Clocks to Space Clocks
7.7 Timing and Earth Station Scheduling
7.8 Time and positioning accuracy
7.9 5G at Sea
7.10 Long Wave to Light – Messrs Marconi and Musk
7.11 The Optical Outback
7.12 Quantum Earth Stations
7.13 Optical computing and optical storage
7.14 Ground versus space complexity
7.15 Summary


Chapter 8 Low Altitude Platforms
8.1 Whatever the Weather Wireless
8.2 Regulation and Air Traffic Control
8.3 Regulation of Drones
8.4 Drone Airframe options, size and Wi Fi data rates
8.5 Flying Cars and 5G Urban Air Mobility
8.6 War Drones for War Zones
8.7 Height, altitude, Radio Altimeters, C Band protection ratios and In Flight Connectivity
8.8 Precision Flying using MEO GPS and LEO time and freqency references
8.9 Opportunistic Navigation
8.10 Summary - Beyond Line of Site (BLOS) Navigation, Communications and Control
8.11 Large and Lost at Sea Malaysian Airlines MH 370
8.12 Aviation Radio Spectrum
8.13 WRC 23
8.14 Long, Medium, Short Wave and VHF Radio Systems at WRC-23
8.15 In Flight Connectivity (IFC)
8.16 5G ATG IFC
8.17 SIMS Multi SIMS and ESIMS and the 5G ATG link budget
8.18 Connecting from above using optimised single band radios as an alternative to 5G ATG
8.19 Optical versus RF from 0 to 100 kilometers – Mr Shannon and RF and Optical Link Budgets
8.20 Optical Control of Drones and UAV’s
8.21 Plane Spotting From Space
8.22 Summary


Chapter 9 High Altitude Platforms
9.1 5G HAPS – The Basics
9.2 HAPS Alliance, the GSMA and ITU HAPS Spectrum Allocations
9.3 Platforms and Power
9.4 Hydrogen versus Helium for HAPS
9.5 RF versus Optical


Chapter 10 RF and Optical Technology Enablers
10.1 The Five G’s - RF Technology Time Scales
10.2 The Ten G’s- Optical Technology Time Scales
10.3 Electronics versus Photonics
10.4 From 2D to 5D – Optical Computers and Photonic Storage
10.5 Summary- Light at the end of a tunnel


Chapter 11 Technology Economics of RF and Fibre for terrestrial and space networks
11.1 Link Budget Economics
11.2 Moore’s Law and our Law - the Law of the Dollar and the Decibel - the impact of the link budget on RF and Optical Network Economics
11.3 Space Value versus Terrestrial Value
11.4 Space Costs
11.5 Space Spectrum
11.6 Space Standards
11.7 6G and Satellite RF and Optical Spectrum Standards and Scale

  • Geoff Varrall Geoff Varrall joined RTT an executive director and shareholder to develop RTT's international business as a provider of technology and business services to the wireless industry. Previously he was a director at Cambridge Wireless and has undertaken spectrum and standards consultancy work for a broad cross section of operators and vendors and regulatory and standards agencies in the US, Europe and Asia.
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