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Artech House UK
Introduction to Active Phased Arrays

Introduction to Active Phased Arrays

By (author): Thomas Sikina
Copyright: 2023
Pages: 524
ISBN: 9781630818661

Print Book £173.00 Qty:
Written by a renowned expert in the field, this book presents the fundamentals of phased array systems, including contemporary and advanced methods. It features applications ranging from advanced and commercial radars to remote sensing, and multiple channel communications. You will find detailed coverage of fields and waves analysis, domain analysis, fundamentals of array theory, far field synthesis, Floquet theory, aperture weighting functions, impedance and mutual coupling theory, and many other technical applications in system design. The book helps you understand array fundamentals that can be realized by analog, digital or hybrid beamforming methods, reflecting perceived trends in the industry. You’ll also benefit from numerous practice cases, with examples and illustrations to sharpen your understanding. The book leads readers through practical observations, analysis, and design methods that equip both entry-level and experienced engineers with the basic information to solve today’s problems and be in position to take on next-generation engineering and scientific challenges.

1.0 Introduction to Phased Arrays

1.1 Phased Array History and Perspective
1.2 Fundamentals of Wave Propagation: The Wave Equation
1.2.1 Boundary Condition Cases Standing Waves Surface Waves and Scan Loss Scan-Dependent Surface Impedance
1.3 Array Antennas
1.4 Aperture State Fundamentals
1.4.1 General Aperture State Relationships
1.4.2 Radiation Integrals for Circular Apertures
1.5 Array Far field Fundamentals
1.6 Frequency-Time Domains
1.6.1 Frequency-Time Domains: Fast Fourier Transform


2.1 Array Far Field Radiation

2.2 Array Far Field Fundamental Observations
2.3 General Array Theory
2.4 Two-Element Arrays
2.5 Linear Arrays
2.5.1 Linear Arrays in Sine Space
2.5.2 Linear Array Aperture Projection
2.6 Planar Arrays
2.6.1 Planar Arrays with No Real Space Grating Lobes
2.6.2 Planar Arrays with Real Space Grating Lobes
2.7 Conformal Arrays
2.7.1 Radius of Curvature Embedded Element Geometry
2.7.2 Conformal Array Phase Alignment
2.7.3 Eclipsed Elements in Conformal Arrays


3.1 Lattice Theory

3.2 Floquet’s Theorem
3.2.1 Phased array Surface Wave Condition
3.2.2 Phased Array Scan Volume
3.3 Lattice Theory
3.3.1 Rectangular Lattice
3.3.2 Equilateral Triangular Lattice
3.3.3 Isosceles Triangular Lattice
3.4 Reordered Lattice Theory
3.4.1 Ring Lattice
3.4.2 Spiral Lattice
3.5 Finite Array and Surface Wave Effects


4.1 Array Fundamentals: Supporting Theories I

4.2 Radiating Aperture Fundamentals, Three Domains
4.3 Array Architecture
4.3.1 Case 1: Hybrid Beamformed, Single Polarization
4.3.2 Case 2: Analog Beamformed, Dual Simultaneous Polarization
4.4 Practical Limits
4.4.1 Theorem of Reciprocity
4.4.2 Conservation of Energy
4.4.3 Superposition
4.4.4 Duality Theorem
4.5 Near- and Far-Fields
4.5.1 The Far Field Criterion
4.5.2 Array Reactive and Near Fields
4.6 Rotational Transforms
4.6.1 Coordinate Frames
4.6.2 Sine Space
4.6.3 Rotated Coordinate Frames
4.6.4 Inverted Rotated Coordinate Frames


5.1 Array Fundamentals: Supporting Theories II

5.2 Radiated Gain
5.3 Polarization Domain
5.3.1 Polarization Transforms
5.3.2 Stokes Parameters
5.3.3 Polarization Isolation
5.3.4 Cross-Polarization
5.3.5 Scan Dependent Polarization Properties
5.3.6 Polarization Compensation
5.4 Phased Array Noise Temperature
5.4.1 Antenna Noise Sources
5.4.2 Noise Wave Theory


6.1 Phased Array Radiating Elements

6.2 Single Element Dipole Over Ground Plane Radiators
6.2.1 Dipole Boundary Conditions
6.2.2 Dipole Radiation
6.3 Single Element Waveguide Radiators
6.3.1 Rectangular Waveguide
6.3.2 Circular Waveguide
6.3.3 Circular Waveguide Radiator
6.4 Single Element Patch Radiators
6.4.1 Square Patch Boundary Conditions
6.4.2 Square Patch Design Methods
6.4.3 Square Patch Radiation
6.4.4 Circular Patch Boundary Conditions
6.4.5 Circular Patch Radiation


7.1 Active Radiating Elements

7.2 Mutual Coupling and Embedded Elements in Arrays
7.2.1 Active Impedance and Reflection Coefficient
7.2.2 Wide Angle Impedance Matching
7.2.3 Real Space Grating Lobes
7.2.4 Surface Impedance Effects
7.2.5 Embedded Element Gain
7.3 Active Radiating Element Cases
7.4 Active Dipole Over Ground Plane Radiators
7.4.1 Linear Dipole Array
7.4.2 Vee Dipole Array
7.4.3 PUMA Array
7.5 Active Patch Radiators
7.5.1 Balanced Patch Radiator Array
7.5.2 Unbalanced Patch Radiator Array
7.5.3 Balanced Stacked Patch Radiator in a Rectangular Lattice Array


8.1 Far Field Synthesis I

8.2 Fourier Transform Method
8.3 Schelkunoff’s Form
8.4 Canonic Forms
8.5 Truncated Complex Gaussian Forms
8.5.1 Truncated Gaussian Magnitude Aperture Taper
8.5.2 Truncated Gaussian Phase Aperture Taper
8.6 Modified sin(x)/x Distribution


9.1 Far field Array Synthesis, Part II

9.2 Woodward-Lawson Synthesis
9.2.1 Non-Orthogonal Woodward-Lawson Method
9.2.2 Difference Patterns by the Woodward-Lawson Method
9.2.3 WLS Method with Controlled Sidelobes
9.3 Dolph-Chebyshev Synthesis
9.4 Taylor Line Source Synthesis
9.5 Planar 2-Dimensional Array Distributions
9.6 Circular Aperture Distributions
9.6.1 Taylor Circular Array Sources
9.7 Iterative Synthesis Methods
9.8 Maximal Likelihood Estimation


10.1 Stochastic Aperture Errors in Phased Arrays

10.1.1 Stochastic (Random) Errors in Arrays
10.1.2 Average (rms) Far-Field Characteristics
10.1.3 Beam Pointing Error
10.1.4 Peak and rms Sidelobes
10.1.5 Dispersion and its impact on Instantaneous Bandwidth
10.1.6 Polarization Isolation
10.2 Stochastic Error Budgets
10.3 Periodic (Correlated) Array Errors
10.3.1 Element-Level Phase Quantization
10.3.2 Subarray Spatial Effects Subarray Gap Effects Subarray Membrane Effects
10.3.3 Subarray Frequency Domain Effects
10.3.4 Aperture Blockage


11.1 Array Networks

11.1.1 Applied Array Networks
11.1.2 Networked Array Architectures (active, passive, reactive)
11.2 Networked Array Architectures
11.2.1 Linear Array Simultaneous Beams
11.2.2 Two-Dimensional Array Simultaneous Beam Set
11.2.3 Subarrayed Simultaneous Beam Systems
11.2.4 Spatially Randomized Subarrays
11.2.5 Overlapped Subarrays
11.2.6 Rotman lens arrays
11.3 MIMO Arrays


12.1 Array Calibration

12.2 Array Calibration Error Sources
12.3 Bench Calibration Methods
12.4 Far Field Range (NFR) Array Calibration
12.5 Near Field Range (FFR) Array Calibration
12.6 Satellite-Based Array (SATCAL) Calibration
12.7 Quasar-Based Array Calibration

  • Thomas Sikina

    has found a deep admiration for microwave and advanced radiation since Bob Klopack first introduced the fundamentals during the early 1970s. Tom has worked at many leading industrial sources: RCA, ITT Gilfillan, and Raytheon being notable entries. While at Raytheon, he has lead phased array efforts on a wide variety of programs and IR&D at Raytheon for many years. The author or co-author of multiple company internal technical articles and more than 30 patents on phased array technology, Tom has been an active supporter of the Raytheon RF symposium and has taught the internal Phased Array course at Raytheon periodically since 1997. Tom has also been fortunate to serve as an Adjunct Professor at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell since 2015, and attributes much of the recent array work to their fiery interest in the subject.

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