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Artech House UK
Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems, Second Edition

Introduction to Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems, Second Edition

Copyright: 2012
Pages: 488
ISBN: 9781608071012

eBook £145.00
This newly revised and updated edition of a classic Artech House book offers a current and complete introduction to the analysis and design of Electro-Optical (EO) imaging systems. The Second Edition provides numerous updates and brand new coverage of today 's most important areas, including the integrated spatial frequency approach and a focus on the weapons of terrorists as objects of interest. This comprehensive reference details the principles and components of the Linear Shift-Invariant (LSI) infrared and electro-optical systems and shows you how to combine this approach with calculus and domain transformations to achieve a successful imaging system analysis. Ultimately, the steps described in this book lead to results in quantitative characterizations of performance metrics such as modulation transfer functions, minimum resolvable temperature difference, minimum resolvable contrast, and probability of object discrimination. The book includes an introduction to two-dimensional functions and mathematics which can be used to describe image transfer characteristics and imaging system components. You also learn diffraction concepts of coherent and incoherent imaging systems which show you the fundamental limits of their performance. By using the evaluation procedures contained in this desktop reference, you become capable of predicting both sensor test and field performance and quantifying the effects of component variations. This practical resource includes over 780 time-saving equations.
Introduction -Introduction to Imaging. Infrared and EO Systems. Wavelength Dependencies. Typical EO Scenario. Typical Infrared Scenario. Analytical Parameters. Sensitivity and Resolution. Linear Systems Approach. Summary. Guide to the References. ; Mathematics - Complex Functions. Common One-Dimensional Functions. Two-Dimensional Functions. Convolution and Correlation. The Fourier Transform. Properties of the Fourier Transform. Transform Pairs. Probability. Important Examples. Guide to the References. Exercises. ; Linear Shift-Invariant Systems - Linear Systems. Shift Invariance. Basics of LSI Systems. Impulse Response. Transfer Function. System PSF and MTF Versus Component PSF and MTF. Spatial Sampling. Spatial Sampling and Resolution. Sampled Imaging Systems. Guide to the References. Exercises. ; Diffraction - Electromagnetic Waves. Coherence. Fresnel and Fraunhofer Diffraction from an Aperture. Fraunhofer Diffraction from a Thin Lens. Thin Lens Optical System Diffraction Psf. Thin Lens Diffraction Mtf. Calculating Diffraction Mtf with Pencil and Paper. Programs for Calculating Incoherent Diffraction Mtf. Applications of Diffraction Theory. Exercises. ; Sources of Radiation - Radiometry and Photometry. Infrared Targets and Backgrounds. Electro-Optical Targets and Backgrounds. Other Sensitivity Considerations. Target and Background Spatial Characteristics. Typical Midwave and Longwave Contrasts and Solar Effects. Exercises. ; Atmospherics - Atmospheric Components and Structure. Atmospheric Transmission. Absorption. Scattering. Path Radiance. Turbulence. Atmospheric Mtf. Models. Model Discussion. Some Practical Considerations. Exercises. ; Optics - Light Representation and the Optical Path Length. Reflection and Snell 's Law of Refraction. The Thin Lens Ray-Tracing Rules and Gauss 's Equation. Spherical Mirrors. Modeling the Thick Lens. Vergence. Multiple-Lens Systems. Field of View. Resolution. Aperture Stop, Pupils, and Rays. The f-Number and Numerical Aperture. Telescopes and Angular Magnification. Modulation Transfer Function. Aberrations. Optical Materials. Cold Stop and Cold Shield. A Typical Optical System. Diffraction Blur. Guide To the References. Exercises. ; Detectors - Types of Detectors. Photon Detectors. Thermal Detectors. Charge-Coupled Devices. Detector Responsivity. Detector Sensitivity. Detector Angular Subtense. Scanning Configurations and Implementations. Detector Transfer Functions. Infrared Detectors. Electro-Optical Systems. Noise. Basic Background-Limited Infrared Photodetection. New Infrared Detector Arrays. Exercises. ; Electronics - Detector Circuits. Conversion of Spatial and Temporal Frequencies. Electronics Transfer Function. Noise. MTF Boost Filter. EO Mux MTF. Digital Filter MTF. CCDs. Uniformity Correction or NUC.ù Readout Integrated Circuits. Exercises. ; Image Processing - Basics of Sampling Theory. Applications of Image Filtering. Super-Resolution Image Reconstruction. Image Fusion. Summary. ; Displays, Human Perception, and Automatic Target Recognizers - Displays. Cathode-Ray Tubes. Light-Emitting Diodes. Liquid-Crystal Displays. Plasma Displays. Sampling and Display Processing. Human Perception and the Human Eye. Modulation Transfer Function of the Eye. Contrast Threshold Function of the Eye. Automatic Target Recognition. Exercises. ; Historical Performance Models -Introduction. Johnson Model Fundamentals. The MRT Model. The First Flirs and Models. Model Improvements for Resolution and Noise. Incorporating Eye Contrast Limitations. Model Improvement to Add Sampling. Other Improvements Prior to the Target Task Performance Metric. The TRM3 Model. Triangle Orientation Discrimination. Imager Modeling, Measurement, and Field Performance. Exercises. ; Contrast Threshold and TTP Metric - Contrast Threshold Function of the Naked Eye. Contrast Threshold Function for the Eye-Display System. Validation of Eye-Display Contrast Threshold Model. Eye-Display Contrast Threshold Model. TTP Metric and Range Performance Modeling. Guide to the References. Exercises. Appendix. ; Infrared and EO System Performance and Target Acquisition - Sensitivity and Resolution. Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference. EO Noise and Noise Equivalent Irradiance. Three-Dimensional Noise. Modulation Transfer Function. Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (Including 2D MRT). Target Acquisition with Limiting Frequency (Johnson 's N50). System Contrast Threshold Function. Target Acquisition with the Target Task Performance Metric (and Vollmerhausen 's V50). Target Sets. Classic ISR, NIIRS, and General Image Quality. The Newest Military Imaging Mode: Persistent Surveillance. Exercises. ; Search - Problem Definition.Introduction to Search Theory. Technique for Estimating Search Parameters and Their Uncertainties. Search Parameters and NV-IPM. Time-Limited Search. Field of Regard Search. Multiple Observers, Single Sensor, Unlimited Time, and Shared Knowledge. Independent Search with Two Sensors, Unlimited Time, and Shared Knowledge. Time-Dependent Search Parameters Search Model. Other Work. Guide to the References. Exercises. Appendix. ; Laboratory Measurements of Infrared Imaging System Performance - Sensitivity. Resolution. Human Performance: Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference. Dynamic Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference. ; References. List of Symbols. List of Acronyms. Table of Abbreviations and Concepts. Table of Operators and Mathematical Functions ;
  • Ronald G. Driggers Ronald Driggers is the superintendent in the Optical Sciences Division of the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory. He was previously a senior engineer at U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate where he provided electro-optical and infrared research on performance modeling. Dr. Driggers received his Ph.D., M.S., and B.S. from the University of Memphis.
  • Melvin H. Friedman Melvin H. Friedman is a senior physicist in the Modeling and Simulation Division of Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate. He is the primary inventor of eight patents and has more than forty years of experience having worked in the fields of nuclear physics, neutron activation analysis, automation, scanning electron microscopy, land-mine detection, development of intelligence gathering sensors, search and the modeling of electro-optical sensors. Dr. Friedman received his Ph.D. degree in physics from Carnegie-Mellon University and M.S. degrees in computer science and electrical engineering from Johns Hopkins University.
  • Jonathan M. Nichols Jonathan M. Nichols works for the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. as a member of the Maritime Sensing Section in the Optical Sciences Division. His research interests include the modeling and analysis of infrared imaging devices, signal and image processing, and parameter estimation. He received his B.Sc. from the University of Delaware and his M. Sc. and Ph.D. from Duke University, all in mechanical engineering.
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