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Artech House UK
Lumped Elements for RF and Microwave Circuits, Second Edition

Lumped Elements for RF and Microwave Circuits, Second Edition

By (author): Inder J. Bahl
Copyright: 2022
Pages: 600
ISBN: 9781630819323

Print Book £147.00 Qty:
£139.00
Purchase Ebook
Fully updated and including entirely new chapters, this Second Edition provides in-depth coverage of the different types of RF and microwave circuit elements, including inductors, capacitors, resistors, transformers, via holes, airbridges, and crossovers. Featuring extensive formulas for lumped elements, design trade-offs, and an updated and current list of references, the book helps you understand the value and usefulness of lumped elements in the design of RF, microwave and millimeter wave components and circuits. You’ll find a balanced treatment between standalone lumped elements and their circuits using MICs, MMICs and RFICs technologies. You’ll also find detailed information on a broader range RFICs that was not available when the popular first edition was published. The book captures – in one consolidated volume -- the fundamentals, equations, modeling, examples, references and overall procedures to design, test and produce microwave components that are indispensable in industry and academia today. With its superb organization and expanded coverage of the subject, this is a must-have, go-to resource for practicing engineers and researchers in industry, government and university and microwave engineers working in the antenna area. Students will also find it a useful reference with its clear explanations, many examples and practical modeling guidelines.

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 History of Lumped Elements
1.2 Why Use Lumped Elements for RF and Microwave Circuits
1.3 L, C, R Circuit Elements
1.4 Basic Design of Lumped Elements
1.4.1 Capacitor
1.4.2 Inductor
1.4.3 Resistor
1.5 Lumped-Element Modeling
1.6 Fabrication
1.7 Applications
References
Chapter 2 Inductors
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Basic Definitions
2.2.1 Inductance
2.2.2 Magnetic Energy
2.2.3 Mutual Inductance
2.2.4 Effective Inductance
2.2.5 Impedance
2.2.6 Time Constant
2.2.7 Quality Factor
2.2.8 Self-Resonant Frequency
2.2.9 Maximum Current Rating
2.2.10 Maximum Power Rating
2.2.11 Other Parameters
2.3 Inductor Configurations
2.4 Inductor Models
2.4.1 Analytical Models
2.4.2 Coupled-Line Approach
2.4.3 Mutual Inductance Approach
2.4.4 Numerical Approach
2.4.5 Measurement-Based Model
2.5 Coupling Between Inductors
2.5.1 Low-Resistivity Substrates
2.5.2 High-Resistivity Substrates
2.6 Electrical Representations
2.6.1 Series and Parallel Representations
2.6.2 Network Representations
References
Chapter 3 Printed Inductors
3.1 Inductors on Si Substrate
3.1.1 Conductor Loss
3.1.2 Substrate Loss
3.1.3 Layout Considerations
3.1.4 Inductor Model
3.1.5 Q-Enhancement Techniques
3.1.6 Stacked-Coil Inductor
3.1.7 Temperature Dependence
3.2 Inductors on GaAs Substrate
3.2.1 Inductor Model
3.2.2 Figure of Merit
3.2.3 Comprehensive Inductor Data
3.2.4 Q-Enhancement Techniques
3.2.5 Compact Inductors
3.2.6 High Current Handling Capability Inductors
3.3 Printed Circuit Board Inductors
3.4 Hybrid Integrated Circuit Inductors
3.4.1 Thin-Film Inductors
3.4.2 Thick-Film Inductors
3.4.3 LTCC Inductors
3.4.4 Ferromagnetic Inductor
References
Chapter 4 Wire Inductors
4.1 Wire-Wound Inductors
4.1.1 Analytical Expressions
4.1.2 Compact High Frequency Inductors
4.2 Bond Wire Inductor
4.2.1 Single and Multiple Wires
4.2.2 Wire Near a Corner
4.2.3 Wire on a Substrate Backed by a Ground Plane
4.2.4 Wire Above a Substrate Backed by a Ground Plane
4.2.5 Curved Wire Connecting Substrates
4.2.6 Twisted Wire
4.2.7 Maximum Current Handling of Wires
4.3 Wire Models
4.3.1 Numerical Methods for Bond Wires
4.3.2 Measurement-Based Models for Air Core Inductors
4.3.3 Measurement-Based Models for Bond Wire
4.4 Broadband Inductors
4.5 Magnetic Materials
References
Chapter 5 Capacitors
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Capacitor Parameters
5.2.1 Capacitor Value
5.2.2 Effective Capacitance
5.2.3 Tolerances
5.2.4 Temperature Coefficient
5.2.5 Quality Factor
5.2.6 Equivalent Series Resistance
5.2.7 Series and Parallel Resonances
5.2.8 Dissipation Factor or Loss Tangent
5.2.9 Time Constant
5.2.10 Rated Voltage
5.2.11 Rated Current
5.3 Chip Capacitor Types
5.3.1 Multilayer Dielectric Capacitor
5.3.2 Multiplate Capacitor
5.4 Discrete Parallel Plate Capacitor Analysis
5.4.1 Vertically-Mounted Series Capacitor
5.4.2 Flat-Mounted Series Capacitor
5.4.3 Flat-Mounted Shunt Capacitor
5.4.4 Measurement-Based Model
5.5 Voltage and Current Ratings
5.5.1 Maximum Voltage Rating
5.5.2 Maximum RF Current Rating
5.5.3 Maximum Power Dissipation
5.6 Capacitor Electrical Representation
5.6.1 Series and Shunt Connections
5.6.2 Network Representation
References
Chapter 6 Monolithic Capacitors
6.1 MIM Capacitor Models
6.1.1 Simple Lumped Equivalent Circuit
6.1.2 Single Microstrip-Based Distributed Model
6.1.3 EC Model for MIM Capacitor on Si
6.1.4 EM Simulations
6.2 High-Density Capacitors
6.2.1 Multilayer Capacitors
6.2.2 Ultra-Thin Film Capacitors
6.2.3 High-K Capacitors
6.2.4 Fractal Capacitors
6.2.5 Ferroelectric Capacitors
6.3 Capacitor Shapes
6.3.1 Rectangular Capacitors
6.3.2 Circular Capacitors
6.3.3 Octagonal Capacitors
6.4 Design Considerations
6.4.1 Q-Enhancement Techniques
6.4.2 Tunable Capacitor
6.4.3 Maximum Power handling
References
Chapter 7 Interdigital Capacitors
7.1 Interdigital Capacitor Model
7.1.1 Approximate Analysis
7.1.2 Full-Wave Analysis
7.1.3 Measurement-Based Model
7.2 Design considerations
7.2.1 Compact Size
7.2.2 Multilayer Capacitor
7.2.3 Q-Enhancement Techniques
7.2.4 Voltage Tunable Capacitor
7.2.5 High-Voltage Operation
7.4 Interdigital Structure as a Photodetector
References
Chapter 8 Resistors
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basic Definitions
8.2.1 Power Rating
8.2.2 Temperature Coefficient
8.2.3 Resistor Tolerances
8.2.4 Maximum Working Voltage
8.2.5 Maximum Frequency of Operation
8.2.6 Stability
8.2.7 Noise
8.2.8 Maximum Current Rating
8.3 Resistor Types
8.3.1 Chip Resistors
8.3.2 MCM Resistors
8.3.3 Monolithic Resistors
8.4 High-Power Resistors
8.5 Resistor Models
8.5.1 EC Model
8.5.2 Distributed Model
8.5.3 Meander Line Resistor
8.6 Resistor Representations
8.6.1 Network Representations
8.6.2 Electrical Representations
8.7 Effective Conductivity
8.8 Thermistors
References
Chapter 9 Via Holes
9.1 Types of Via Holes
9.1.1 Via Hole Connection
9.1.2 Via hole Ground
9.2 Via Hole Models
9.2.1 Analytical Model
9.2.2 Quasi-static Method
9.2.3 Parallel Plate Waveguide Model
9.2.4 Method of Moments
9.2.5 Measurement-Based Model
9.3 Via Fence
9.3.1 Coupling Between Via Holes
9.3.2 Radiation From Via Ground Plug
9.4 Plated Heat Sink Via
9.5 Via Hole Layout
9.6 Silicon Vias
Reference
Chapter 10 Airbridge and Dielectric Crossover
10.1 Airbridge and Crossover
10.2 Analysis Techniques
10.2.1 Quasistatic Method
10.2.2 Full-Wave Analysis
10.3 Models
10.3.1 Analytical Model
10.3.2 Measurement-Based Model
References
Chapter 11 Inductor Transformers and Baluns
11.1 Basic Theory
11.1.1 Parameters Definition
11.1.2 Analysis of Transformers
11.1.3 Ideal Transformer
11.1.4 Equivalent Circuit Representation
11.1.5 Equivalent Circuit of a Practical Transformer
11.1.6 Wideband Impedance Matching Transformers
11.1.7 Types of Transformers
11.2 Wire-Wrapped Transformers
11.2.1 Tapped Coil Transformers
11.2.2 Bond Wire Transformer
11.3 Transmission-Line Type Transformers
11.4 Parallel Conductor Winding Transformers on Si Substrate
11.5 Spiral Transformers on GaAs Substrate
11.6 Baluns
11.6.1 Lumped-Element LP/HP Filter Baluns
11.6.2 Lumped-Element Power Divider and 180° Hybrid Baluns
11.6.3 Coil Transformer Baluns
11.6.4 Transmission-Line Baluns
11.6.5 Marchand Baluns
11.6.6 Common-Mode Rejection Ratio
References
Chapter 12 Lumped-Element Passive Components
12.1 Impedance Matching Techniques
12.1.1 One-Port and Two-Port Networks
12.1.2 Lumped-Element Narrowband Matching Techniques
12.1.3 Lumped-Element Wideband Matching Techniques
12.2 900 Hybrids
12.2.1 Broadband 3-dB 900 Hybrid
12.2.2 Reconfigurable 3-dB 900 Hybrid
12.2.3 Dual-Band 3-dB 900 Hybrid
12.2.4 Differential 3-dB 900 Hybrid
12.3 1800 Hybrids
12.3.1 Compact Lumped-Element 3-dB 1800 Hybrid
12.3.2 Wideband Lumped-Element Differential 3-dB 1800 Hybrids
12.4 Directional Couplers
12.4.1 Transformer Directional Couplers
12.4.2 High isolation Directional Coupler
12.4.3 Differential Directional Couplers
12.4.4. Directional Coupler with Impedance Matching
12.5 Power Dividers/Combiners
12.5.1 Power Dividers with 900 and 1800 Phase Difference
12.5.2 Broadband 2-Way and 4-Way Power Dividers
12.5.3 Compact 2-Way and 4-Way Power Dividers
12.5.4 Dual-Band Power Dividers
12.5.5 Differential Power Dividers
12.6 Filters
12.6.1 Ceramic Lumped-Element LTCC Bandpass Filters
12.6.2 Dual-Band Filters
12.6.3 Reconfigurable and Switchable Filters
12.6.4 High Selectivity Compact BPF
12.6.5 Differential-Mode and Common-Mode Rejection Filters
12.6.6 Tunable BPF with Constant bandwidth
12.6.7 Compact Si Bandpass Filter
12.6.8 Compact CMOS Bandpass Filters
12.7 Biasing Networks
12.7.1 Biasing of Diodes and Control Components
12.7.2 Biasing of Active Circuits
References
Chapter 13 Lumped-Element Control Components
13.1 Switches
13.1.1 Switch Configurations
13.1.2 Broadband Switches
13.1.3 MESFET Switches
13.1.4 HEMT Switches
13.1.5 CMOS Switches
13.1.6 GaN HEMT switches
13.1.7 Comparison of Switch Technologies
13.2 Phase Shifters
13.2.1 Type of Phase Shifters
13.2.2 Switched-Network Phase Shifters
13.2.3 Multibit Phase Shifter Circuits
13.2.4 MESFET/HEMT Multibit Phase Shifters
13.2.5 CMOS Phase Shifters
13.2.6 Analog Phase Shifters
13.2.7 Broadband Phase Shifters
13.2.8 Ultra-Wideband Phase Shifters
13.2.9 Millimeter Wave Phase Shifters
13.2.10 Active Phase shifters
13.3 Attenuators
13.3.1 Attenuator Configurations
13.3.2 Multibit Attenuators
13.3.3 GaAs MMIC Step Attenuators
13.3.4 Si CMOS Step Attenuators
13.3.5 Variable Voltage Attenuators
13.3.6 GaN HEMT Attenuator
13.3.7 Phase Compensated Attenuators
13.3.8 CMOS Attenuator with Integrated Switch
13.4 Limiters
13.4.1 Limiter Types
13.4.2 Diode Limiter Circuits
13.4.3 FET switch Limiter Circuits
13.4.4 Matched Limiters
13.4.5 Limiter/LNA (LLNA)
References
Chapter 14 Lumped-Element Active Circuits
14.1 Amplifiers
14.1.1 Low-Noise Amplifiers
14.1.2 Power Amplifiers
14.1.3 Differential Amplifiers
14.1.4 Buffer Amplifiers
14.2 Oscillators
14.2.1 Oscillator Configurations
14.2.2 Operation of Oscillators
14.2.3 Phase Noise in Oscillators
14.2.4 Oscillator Design
14.2.5 GaAs HEMT and HBT-HEMT Based VCOs
14.2.6 Si Based VCOs
14.3 Mixers
14.3.1 Passive Mixer Circuits
14.3.2 Active Mixer Circuits
14.4 Frequency Multipliers
14.4.1 Introduction
14.4.2 Diode Multipliers
14.4.3 Transistor Multipliers
14.4.4 Frequency Doublers
14.4.5 Frequency Triplers
14.4.6 Frequency Quadrupler and Higher Order Multipliers
14.5 Frequency Dividers
14.5.1 Regenerative Frequency Dividers
14.5.2 Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers
14.5.3 Divide-by-3 Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers
14.5.4 Divide-by-4 and Higher-Order Dividers
14.6 Other Active Circuits
14.6.1 Active Baluns
14.6.2 Active Inductors
14.6.3 Active Capacitors
14.6.4 Active Filters
14.6.5 Active Circulators
References
Appendix

  • Inder J. Bahl

    received his Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, in 1975. Dr. Bahl has more than 40 years of experience working in the microwave field. Dr. Bahl researched and managed products including microwave and millimeter-wave integrated circuits, printed antennas, phased array antennas, millimeter wave antennas, and medical and industrial applications of microwaves. He joined the ITT Gallium Arsenide Technology Center in 1981 and launched numerous microwave and millimeter wave GaAs IC products for commercial and military applications. At Cobham (formerly ITT GTC/Tyco Electronics), he continued working on GaAs ICs as a Distinguished Fellow of Technology until he retired in 2010. Through his research publications and books, he is well recognized worldwide in the microwave field. Dr. Bahl is the author or co-author of more than 160 research papers. He authored or co-authored 15 books and holds 17 patents. He is an IEEE Life Fellow and a member of the Electromagnetic Academy.

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