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Artech House UK
Navigation and Tracking in Space: Analysis and Algorithms

Navigation and Tracking in Space: Analysis and Algorithms

Copyright: 2024
Pages: 204
ISBN: 9781630819217

eBook £103.00

This book focuses on the navigation and tracking of artificial space objects, with emphasis on modelling the dynamics in a wide range of space missions, including: earth-orbiting satellite missions, launch and re-entry missions as well as interplanetary missions. The book guides you in designing suitable estimation algorithms for each type of mission. It also helps you in addressing non-linearity in designing navigation algorithms for space missions, and walks you through the process for choosing estimators for navigation and tracking of space vehicles.


You’ll find specific details on earth-orbiting satellite tracking and navigation that helps you determine precise orbit, and will understand how to get navigation and tracking results using the Least Square Estimation and the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) for simulated observations. You also learn how to address tracking performance of spacecraft in interplanetary trajectories that are affected by a diverse set of problems, such low signal power, intermittent observations, observations at low rate and delays. Techniques for designing navigation and tracking algorithms to address these problems are delineated. The book also provides in-depth coverage of multi-object tracking, relevant data association and estimation algorithms in the Situational Space Awareness context.


MATLAB /Simulink based software is provided for simulation and simulated data set. This is an excellent reference and practical tool for professionals in the field of Guidance, Navigation and Control, along with researchers and advanced students in the field of space vehicle navigation, tracking, guidance and control.

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background
1.2 Scope of the book
1.2.1 Objectives
1.2.2 Overview of the book
1.3 Preliminaries
1.3.1 Linear algebra
1.3.2 3-dimensional rotation matrices
1.3.3 Probability
1.3.4 Motion of an object in space


Chapter 2 Space Vehicle Dynamics
2.1 Overview
2.2 Reference Frames
2.2.1 Earth Centered Inertial (ECI) Frame
2.2.2 Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Frame
2.2.3 Topocentric Frame
2.2.4 Solar Ecliptic Coordinate System
2.2.5 Reference frame conversion
2.3 Force Model
2.3.1 Perturbation forces
2.3.2 Thrust
2.4 State space model of space Vehicles
2.4.1 Earth orbiting satellites
2.4.2 Launch vehicle
2.4.3 Re-entry vehicle
2.4.4 Interplanetary spacecraft


Chapter 3 Observations
3.1 Overview
3.2 Ground-Based Observations
3.2.1 Active and passive radio Observations
3.2.2 Satellite Laser ranging
3.2.3 Very Long Baseline Interferometry
3.3 On-board Observations
3.3.1 Angular Measurements to celestial objects
3.3.2 Earth Based Target Reference Measurement
3.3.3 Range Measurement to Known Beacon
3.3.4 GNSS Observations
3.3.5 Dilution of Precision
3.3.6 Inertial Navigation System
3.4 Summary


Chapter 4 Estimation Algorithms
4.1 Overview
4.2 Space Vehicle Navigation as an Estimation Problem
4.3 Least Square Estimation and Batch processing
4.4 The Kalman Filter
4.4.1 The Kalman Filter for Discrete Linear Systems
4.4.2 Extended Kalman Filter
4.4.3 Unscented Kalman Filter
4.4.4 Computationally Efficient Unscented Kalman Filters
4.5 Nonlinearity and Choice of Estimator
4.5.1 Nonlinearity Index
4.6 Particle Filter
4.6.1 Sequential Importance Sampling
4.6.2 Particle Filter variants
4.6.3 Nonlinearity and Estimator performance
4.6.4 Choosing the right estimation algorithm
4.7 MATLAB implementation of estimation algorithms
4.7.1 EKF implementation
4.7.2 UKF implementation
4.7.3 SPUKF implementation
4.7.4 ESPUKF implementation
4.7.5 Particle Filter implementation
4.7.6 ESP-PF implementation
4.8 Summary


Chapter 5 Navigation and Tracking of Satellites
5.1 Overview
5.2 Initial Position and velocity computation
5.3 Satellite navigation and tracking using sequential estimation
5.3.1 System model
5.3.2 Satellite position and velocity estimation using azimuth, elevation and range observation
5.3.3 Satellite position and velocity estimation using multi-GNSS observation
5.3.4 Factors affecting estimation performance
5.4 Example MATLAB Implementation of GPS-based satellite navigation
5.5 Precise Orbit Determination
5.6 Real-time on-board navigation and other practical considerations


Chapter 6 Navigation and Tracking during launch and re-entry
6.1 Overview
6.2 Ground-based tracking of re-entry vehicle
6.3 Launch Vehicle Navigation using GPS
6.3.1 Reference trajectory generation
6.3.2 Implementation of sequential estimator
6.4 Example MATLAB implementation of launch vehicle and re-entry vehicle position estimation
6.4.1 Re-entry vehicle tracking
6.4.2 GNSS-based navigation of launch vehicle
6.5 Practical Considerations


Chapter 7 Navigation and tracking in lunar and deep space missions
7.1 Overview
7.2 Challanges in lunar and deep space navigation
7.3 Ground-based tracking of spacecraft in lunar transfer trajectory
7.3.1 State transition matrix
7.3.2 Partial Derivative of Measurements
7.4 Delay in observation
7.5 Implementation of navigation algorithm
7.6 Example MATLAB implementation for tracking a spacecraft in lunar transfer trajectory
7.7 Summary and Future directions


A.1 Anomalies
A.2 Keplerian Elements to ECI Position and Velocity
A.3 ECI Position and Velocity to Keplerian Elements
A.4 Lambert Problem

  • Sanat K. Biswas

    is an Assistant Professor with IIIT Delhi. He received the B.E. degree from Jadavpur University in 2010, the M.Tech. degree in Aerospace Engineering from IIT Bombay in 2012, and the Ph.D. degree in computationally Efficient Unscented Kalman filters for space vehicle navigation from the University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, in 2017.


    At IIIT Delhi he leads the Space Systems Laboratory and is involved in developing algorithms for Space Situational Awareness, NavIC reflectometry receiver for remote sensing applications and Precise Point Positioning (PPP) of Low Earth Orbit Satellites.


    Dr. Biswas serves on the technical committee on Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN), and the technical committee on Space Traffic Management (STM) of the International Astronautical Federation. He was the recipient of the 2014 Emerging Space Leaders Grant from the International Astronautical Federation, 2019 Early Career Research Award from the Department of Science and Technology, India and Young Scientist Award 2020 and 2021, from the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and 2020 Harry Rowe Mimno Award from the IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Society.

  • Andrew G. Dempster

    received the B.E. and M.Eng.Sc. degrees from UNSW Australia, in 1984 and 1992, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree in efficient circuits for signal processing arithmetic from the University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K., in 1995.


    He is Director of the Australian Centre for Space Engineering Research (ACSER), UNSW Australia. He was a System Engineer and Project Manager for the first GPS receiver developed in Australia in the late 80s and has been involved in satellite navigation ever since. He has published in the areas of arithmetic circuits, signal processing, biomedical image processing, satellite navigation and space systems. His current research interests are in satellite navigation receiver design and signal processing, areas where he has six patents, new location technologies, and space systems.

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