Quartz, unique in its chemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, is used as a frequency control element in applications where stability of frequency is an absolute necessity. Without crystal controlled transmission, radio and television would not be possible in their present form. The quartz crystals allow the individual channels in communication systems to be spaced closer together to make better use of one of most precious resources  wireless bandwidth. This book describes the characteristics of the art of crystal oscillator design, including how to specify and select crystal oscillators. While presenting various varieties of crystal oscillators, this resource also provides you with useful MathCad and Genesys simulations.
Quartz Crystals Introduction. Mother Nature Used Quartz First. The Curie Brothers. Piezoelectricity. Quartz. LeftHanded and RightHanded Quartz. Quartz Is Anisotropic. A Timeline of Quartz Crystals and Oscillators. Important Definitions. Frequency Stability in Perspective. Growing Quartz. Swept Quartz. A Crystal Is Born. Inside the Crystal Unit. Sealing the Crystal Unit. Testing for Moisture. Crystal Resonator Mechanical Equivalent Model. Crystal Resonator Electrical Equivalent Circuit. Derivation of Equivalent Circuit Equations. SeriesResonant and ParallelResonant Oscillators. Load Capacitance. Fundamental Mode Crystals. Overtone Mode Crystals. Spurious Modes. Expanded Quartz Resonator Equivalent Circuit Model. The Ideal Phase Angle of the Quartz Crystal Resonator. Pulling the Crystal Frequency by Changing the Load Capacitance. ZerotoPole Spacing. Trim Sensitivity. Important Unitless Quantities. Resistance of the Crystal Above Series Resonance (ESR).; Quartz Crystal Characteristics Introduction. Defining the Frequency Versus Temperature Curve. Quartz Crystal Cuts. Temperature Characteristics of AT Cut, BT Cut, and SC Cut. Thickness Versus Frequency of Quartz. Wafers (Blanks). Bechmann FrequencyTemperature Curves. AT Cut Versus SC Cut. The SCCut BMode. Temperature Characteristic. Vibrational Displacements of AT Versus SC Cuts. Drive Level. Drive Level. Dependence (DLD) or Drive Level. Sensitivity (DLS). Aging. How Drive Level Affects Aging. Activity Dips. Sleepy Crystals Phenomenon. Specifying Crystals. Crystal Unit Handling Precautions. Crystal Specification Template.; Advanced Quartz Crystal Resonator Topics Introduction. Flicker Noise.Introduction to Fluctuation. Equations. Quartz Resonator Flicker Noise Model. Quartz Resonator Drive Level Sensitivity. Resonator Q and 1/f Noise Versus Drive Level. The Effect of Acceleration on Quartz Resonators. Drive Level Dependency Testing.; MEMS Resonators and Oscillators Introduction. Some MEMS Terminology. MEMS Resonators. MEMS Oscillators Versus Quartz Oscillators. ; Choosing the Correct Crystal for the Application Introduction. Choosing the Correct Crystal for a LowCost CLOCK. Choosing the Correct Crystal for a VCXO. Choosing the Correct Crystal for a TCXO. Specifying a Crystal for an OCXO Application.; Oscillator Theory Introduction. Feedback Oscillator Model. NegativeResistance Model. Bode 's Gain Phase Method. Root Locus Method. The LC Tank Circuit. Loaded Q. LC Resonators. LC Oscillators. Crystal Oscillator Topologies. Choosing a Topology. LoadReactance Stability. How Crystals Oscillate and Control the Frequency: A Qualitative Discussion. ; Phase Noise and Jitter Introduction. The Concept of Noise Density. The Noise Floor. Oscillator Phase Noise. PowerLaw Noise Processes. Deterministic Signals. Measuring Phase Noise on Spectrum Analyzer. Leeson 's Oscillator Noise Model. Oscillator Jitter. Units of Jitter. Measuring Jitter. Transforming Phase Noise to Phase Jitter.; Specifying Crystal Oscillators Introduction. Crystal Oscillator Types. Available Oscillator Output Waveforms. Output Structures of PECL, LVDS, CML, CMOS, and ClippedSinewave. Specifying the Output Waveform. SpreadSpectrum CLOCKs. Specifying CLOCK Oscillators. Specifying VCXOs. Specifying TCXOs. Specifying OCXOs. The Bare Essentials Needed to Specify a Crystal. CLOCK Oscillator. The Bare Essentials Needed to Specify a VCXO. The Bare Essentials Needed to Specify a TCXO. The Bare Essentials Needed to Specify a OCXO.; PierceGate Oscillator Introduction. The Basic PierceGate Oscillator. PierceGate OpenLoop Gain Phase Analysis. Determining the Sufficient Gain Margin of the PierceGate Oscillator. Negative Resistance Versus the Crystal Shunt. Capacitance. Pierce Gate for Third Overtone Mode Crystals. PierceGate StartUp Characteristics. Optimizing the Pierce Gate for High Loaded Q. PierceGate VCXO Configuration. Measuring the Crystal Drive Level. PierceGate CLOCK Design Example ; Colpitts Oscillator Introduction. Derivation of Gain Equation. Colpitts CC Quick Design Procedure Using a FundamentalMode, ParallelResonant Crystal. Colpitts CC Quick Design Procedure Using a Third Overtone Parallel or SeriesResonant Crystal. Transient Analysis of Colpitts CC. Colpitts VCXO Design.; Butler Crystal Oscillator Design Introduction. Butler 's Emitter Follower Oscillator Operation. Butler 's Emitter Follower Design Procedure. Butler 's Emitter Follower VCXO Design Example. Butler Gate Oscillator; Characterization of HighPerformance Crystal Oscillators Introduction. Why the Allan Variance?. Defining the Allan Variance. Modified Allan Variance. Overlapped Allan Variance. Defining Time Variance. TimeInterval Error. Frequency and Phase Data Collection Methods. Allan Variance Estimate from FrequencyDomain Measures.; Frequency Multiplication Techniques Introduction. The Effect on the Signal by Multiplying. PLL Multiplication. Step Recovery Diode (SRD) Multiplication. Nonlinear Transmission Line Multiplication. Direct Multiplication. Mixer Multiplication. Low Noise Schottky Diode OddOrder Multiplier. Times Three Frequency Multiplier Design Example. Crystal Oscillator Requirements in Telecommunications Introduction. Some Telecommunication Definitions. PLL Design Criteria in Telecommunications Networks. ; Testing Crystal Oscillators Introduction. Military Standards. Organizations That Write Standards Other Than Military. Testing Crystal Oscillators. Frequency Counters. Test Fixtures.; Glossary. About the Author. Index ;

Ramon M. Cerda
Ramon M. Cerda has over 20 years of experience designing crystal oscillators. He earned his MSEE from Polytechnic Institute of New York University.